ہندوستان میں شادی کی عمر: ایک تاریخی جائزہ

ذکی نورعظیم ندوی

(لکھنو)

چندمہینوں قبل ہندوستان میں شادی کی عمر اس وقت موضوع بحث بنی جب مرکزی حکومت نے شادی کے تعلق سے متعینہ عمر میں ایک بار پھر تبدیلی کی تجویز پیش کی اور لڑکیوں کی عمر 18 کے بجائے 21 اور لڑکوں کی21 کے بجائے 23 متعین کرنے کی قرارداد منظور کی گئی۔پھرگزشتہ ہفتوں ایک ٹیلیویڑن مباحثہ کے بعد ایک مرتبہ پھر یہ مسئلہ نا صرف دوبارہ موضوع بحث بن گیابلکہ ملکی سطح پر اس قدر تشویش ناک رخ اختیار کرگیا جس کا اثر بین الاقوامی سطح پر بھی محسوس کیاگیا اورمختلف عرب ومسلم ملکوں کے علاوہ دیگر بڑے ملکوں نے بھی اس سلسلہ میں ہندوستانی ماحول پر فکرمندی کا اظہار اورسفارتی سطح پر اس کی مذمت کی، جس کی وجہ سے حکومت ہند کی سبکی بھی ہوئی اورحکومت کواس سلسلے میں کارروائی کرنے پر مجبور بھی ہونا پڑا اور وضاحت بھی پیش کرنی پڑی۔

اس مباحثہ میں غیرمناسب انداز میں نہ صرف سب سے عظیم مذہبی شخصیت اور رہنما پر گستاخانہ تبصرہ کیا گیا بلکہ اس کے ذریعہ ملک کی مذہبی رواداری کو ٹھیس پہنچانے کی ایک ایسی غیر معقول اور نا روا حرکت سرزد ہوئی جس سے ملک کی تاریخی مذہبی ہم آہنگی اورایک دوسرے کے احترام کے روایتی تاریخی موقف اور مزاج کو سخت نقصان پہنچا۔

 اگردیکھا جائے تونبی اکرمؐ کی شادی کے تعلق سے اعتراضات خاص طور پر حضرت عائشہ ؓسے ان کی شادی صدیوں سے موضوع بحث رہی ہے اور مختلف غیرمسلم دانشوروں خاص طور پر مستشرقین کی طرف سے اس موضوع کو باربار اچھال کر نبی اکرمؐ اوراس کے بہانے اسلام کو نشانہ بنانے کی مذموم کوششیں بار بار ہوتی رہی ہیں اورمسلم دانشوروں وعلماء کی طرف سے اس کے جواب میں مختلف مذاہب، تہذیبوں، ملکوں اور علاقوں میں ہونے والی شادیوں، عرب کے گرم موسم اور انسانی نشو ونما پر اس کے اثرات، اور اْس زمانے میں شادیوں کے رسم ورواج اور شادیوں کے سلسلہ میں رائج عمر اور نبی اکرمؐ کی مختلف شادیوں میں صرف حضرت عائشہؓ کا کنواری ہونا اوربقیہ دیگر ازواج مطہرات کی عمروں کی زیادتی بلکہ بیشتر کا بیوہ ہونا وغیرہ وغیرہ کے حوالے سے مطمئن کرنے کی کوششیں ہوتی رہیں جس کو عربی، انگریزی، اردو اور دیگر زبانوں کے لٹریچر میں باآسانی پڑھا جا سکتا ہے۔

                 اِس وقت یہ آواز وطن عزیز ہندوستان میں خاص ملکی صورت حال اور پس منظر میں اْٹھی ہے لہٰذا مناسب معلوم ہوتاہے کہ تاریخی وتحقیقی حوالوں کی روشنی میں اس چیز کا جائزہ لیاجائے کہ یہاں شادی کے تعلق سے کیا معمول رہا اوراس سلسلہ میں قانونی طور پر کب کیااقدام کئے گئے جس کی روشنی میں یہ اندازہ لگایاجاسکتاہے کہ اس کے پس پردہ کیا مقاصد کارفرما ہیں ؟ اور کیا یہ کسی حد تک معقول ہو سکتا ہے؟

ہندوستان میں کم سنی کی شادیوں کے تجزیاتی مطالعہ سے یہ حقائق کھل کر سامنے آئے کہ مختلف زمانوں میں علاقائی حالات اور ضرورتوں کے مدنظر شادی کی قانونی عمر میں یہاں واضح تفاوت رہا ا ور وقت کے بڑھنے کے ساتھ اس میں تبدیلیاں کی جاتی رہی ہیں۔ جس کی آخری کڑی چند مہینوں قبل ملکی پارلیمنٹ کے ذریعہ لڑکیوں کی عمر 18سے بڑھاکر 21اور لڑکوں کی 21 سے 23 کرنے کی تجویز ہے۔

واضح رہے کہ کم عمری کی شادیاں کسی خاص مذہب، کلچر اور ملک کے ساتھ خاص نہیں بلکہ یہ پوری دنیا میں ہمیشہ ہوتی رہی ہیں۔ ہاں یونیسف کی رپورٹ کے مطابق اس وقت وطن عزیز ہندوستان کم عمری کی شادی کے معاملہ میں پوری دنیا میں دوسرے نمبر پر ہے۔ پوری دنیا  میں کم عمری کی 20 فیصد شادیاں صرف ہندوستان میں ہوتی ہیں، یہاں 49 فیصد لڑکیوں کی شادی 18 سال سے پہلے کر دی جاتی ہے۔ کیرالہ جو کہ ملک میں سب سے زیادہ تعلیم یافتہ ریاست ہے وہاں اب بھی کم عمری کی شادیاں کی جاتی ہیں اور اس میں اضافہ ہو رہا ہے، یونیسیف یونائیٹڈ نیشنز انٹرنیشنل چلڈرن ایمرجنسی فنڈ (UNICEF United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund)کی رپورٹ کے مطابق ہندوستان کے دیہی علاقوں میں شہری علاقوں کی نسبت کم عمری کی شادیاں زیادہ ہوتی ہیں۔ بہار میں سب سے زیادہ 68 فیصد جبکہ ہماچل پردیش میں سب سے کم 9 فیصد کم عمری کی شادیاں ہوتی ہیں۔

یہ بات بھی قابل ذکر ہے کہ مختلف زمانوں میں کم عمری کی شادیوں کی تعریف اور اس کے لیے متعینہ عمر میں پوری دنیا اور خود ہندوستان میں بھی فرق رہا ہے اور مختلف زمانوں میں اس میں ملکی و علاقائی ضرورتوں کی روشنی میں تبدیلیاں ہوتی رہی ہیں۔ وطن عزیز ہندوستان کے پس منظر میں دیکھا جائے تو 1860 میں نافذ انڈین پینل کوڈ (آئی پی سی) نے 10 سال سے کم عمر کی لڑکی کے ساتھ کسی بھی طرح کے جنسی تعلق کو جرم قرار دیا تھا، پھر 1927 میں برطانوی حکومت نے ایک قانون کے ذریعے 12 سال سے کم عمر لڑکیوں کی شادیوں کو ناجائز قرار دیا تو برطانوی حکومت کے اس قانون کی بہت سے رہنماؤں نے سخت مخالفت کی اور اس کو ہندو رسم و رواج میں برطانوی مداخلت قرار دیا۔

 برطانوی نوآبادیاتی دور میں 1929 میں پریونشن آف چائلڈ میرج ایکٹ(Prevention of Child Marriage Act) کے ذریعہ لڑکیوں اور لڑکوں کی شادی کی کم از کم عمر بالترتیب 14 اور 18 سال مقرر کی گئی، تو غیر منقسم برطانوی ہندوستان میں مسلم تنظیموں کے مظاہروں کے تحت 1937 میں ایک پرسنل لا شریعہ ایکٹ منظور کیا گیا تھاجس میں لڑکی کے سرپرست کی رضامندی سیاس سے بھی کم عمر کی شادیوں کی اجازت دے دی گئی، 1949 میں ترمیم کے ذریعے عام بچیوں کی شادی کی کم از کم عمر کو بڑھا کر 15 سال کر دیا گیا۔ 1978 میں اس قانون میں ایک بار پھر ترمیم کرکے بچیوں اور بچوں کے لیے شادی کی کم از کم عمر بالترتیب 18 اور 21 سال کر دی گئی۔ اسی طرح اسپیشل میرج ایکٹ 1954 اور پرہیبیشن آف چائلڈ میرج ایکٹ 2006 میں بھی خواتین اور مردوں کے لیے شادی کی کم از کم عمر بالترتیب 18 اور 21 سال مقرر کی گئی ہے۔

یونیسیف کی 2015-2016 کی رپورٹ کے مطابق ہندوستان میں کم عمری کی شادی کی شرح اب بھی 27 فیصد ہے۔ خود ملکی مردم شماری نے شادی شدہ خواتین کی عمر کے لحاظ سے جو اعداد وشمار جاری کئے ہیں اس کے مطابق 1981 کے بعد سے ہر 10 سال کی مردم شماری میں کم عمری کی شادیوں میں خواتین کا تناسب گرا ہے۔ ٹائمز آف انڈیا کی رپورٹ کے مطابق2001 کی مردم شماری میں 10 سال سے کم عمر کی شادیوں کے واقعات تو نہیں ملتے، لیکن 10-14 سال کے درمیان2.59  ملین شادیوں میں کم عمر شادیوں کی تعداد1.4 ملین، 15-19 سال کے درمیان  3 .46 ملین شادیوں میں کم عمر شادیوں کی تعداد 3.11  ملین رہی ہے۔ ہاں ان رپورٹوں سے یہ بات ضرور معلوم ہوتی ہے کہ 2001 کے بعد اس میں نمایاں کمی واقع ہوئی اور  2005 اور 2009 کے درمیان ہندوستان میں کم سنی کی شادیوں کی شرح میں تو 46 فیصد کمی آئی۔

مذکورہ بالا تفصیلات سے یہ بات پوری طرح واضح ہوگئی کہ1860 تک ہندوستان میں 10 سال یا اس سے زائد کی لڑکیوں سے جنسی تعلقات اور شادی قانونی طور پردرست تھی، 1927 میں جب برطانوی حکومت نے 12 سال سے کم عمر لڑکیوں کی شادی کو ناجائز قرار دیا تو اسے ہندو رسم و رواج کے مخالف قرار دیا گیا۔ 1929 میں لڑکیوں کی شادی کی عمر 14،  1949 میں 15 اور پھر 1978 میں 18سال تو کردی گئی لیکن لڑکی کے سرپرست کی رضامندی سے اس سے بھی کم عمر کی شادیوں کی اجازت دے دی گئی۔

 2001 سے پہلے تک ہندوستان میں 10 سال سے کم عمری کی شادیاں قانونی تو نہیں لیکن ان کا عام رواج اورچلن تھا، 2001 کی مردم شماری میں 10 سے 14 سال کی شادیوں کی تعداد 1.4 ملین، 15 سے 19 سال کی شادیوں کی تعداد 3.11  ملین تھی، تو پھر آج سے چودہ سو سال پہلے اگر6 سال میں نکاح کے باوجود رخصتی نہیں ہوتی بلکہ 9 سال یعنی بلوغ کا انتظار کیا جاتا ہے تو اس پر اعتراض کا حق نا صرف یہ کہ کسی طرح معقول اور درست نہیں بلکہ یہ اقوام و مذاہب عالم میں غالبا شادی کے لئیعمر کی تعیین کا پہلا تاریخی اور ہر اعتبار سے قابل قدر اور ایک تجدیدی کارنامہ قرار دیا جانا چاہیے۔

یہ مصنف کی ذاتی رائے ہے۔
(اس ویب سائٹ کے مضامین کوعام کرنے میں ہمارا تعاون کیجیے۔)
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed within this article/piece are personal views of the author; and do not reflect the views of the Mazameen.com. The Mazameen.com does not assume any responsibility or liability for the same.)


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